||Home : Other Documents : Classical Guitar History
Classical guitar is different than other styles in several ways:
· Classical guitar is primarily a solo style. The focus of the classical guitarist is to
perform compositions from a standard repertoire of pieces written throughout
history. Reading music and developing technical ability are the most important
skills practiced by classical guitarists. There is no emphasis on recognizing chord
symbols, improvising lead solos, or playing with a band.
· Right hand fingerstyle technique is used exclusively. Picks are typically not used
because many pieces require a bass line and a melody to be played at the same
time. This can't be done as effectively with a pick (non-adjacent strings can't be
plucked simlutaneaously with a pick).
· Nylon string guitars are used, rather than steel string acoustic or electric
instruments. The neck of the guitar is wider, and the instrument produces a more
mellow sound. Traditionally, classical guitarists perform without amplification.
This lesson provides progressively difficult pieces from the standard classical guitar
repertoire, with brief musical, technical, and historical notes on each piece. There are
seperate technique and history lessons to provide a traditional understanding of the style.
The easiest and most natural way to learn the pieces in this lesson is to listen to, and
mimic the audio recordings provided. Read the technical notes for help with notation,
fingerings solutions, and other tips to make the music easier to perform. Find a favorite
piece and repeat it a little every day - it will become fluid and natural with extended
Classical Guitar Technique:
The term "technique" refers to how your fingers, hands, and body move and function to
produce notes on the guitar. Because the musical textures and patterns are different in
classical guitar than they are in most other styles of music, the technique used to play the
music is also different.
Except for minor differences in positioning and grip, the left hand works primarily the
same way in all guitar styles. Right hand technique, however, varies greatly. Rock, blues,
and country guitarists generally use a "pick" to pluck the strings with the right hand.
Classical guitarists invariably use their right hand fingertips to pluck the strings. Virtually
every proficient classical guitarist today also uses long fingernails on the right hand as
individual "picks" to pluck the strings. Most guitarists who have only a casual interest in
classical guitar don't like to grow out right hand fingernails, and this works fine in the
beginning. If you do develop a more serious interest in the instrument, however, you will
want to learn how to properly develop right hand technique for effective use of the
fingernails. Nail care and grooming is a serious issue for professional classical guitarists.
Nails produce a louder, and generally accepted "better" sound than the flesh of the finger
tips. They also make fingerstyle guitar playing (playing without a pick) MUCH easier. If
you really want to learn how to play classical guitar, it is worth the effort to grow out your
right hand fingernails.
File your nails with the "diamond dust" type files that are available at most pharmacies.
Don't use crosscut metal files - they create a rough surface on the nail. File your nails so
that there are no corners or rough edges. You may want to experiment with different
lengths and shapes. Every player has a unique way of shaping nails for his/her particular
technique. Just make sure that there are no nicks, points, or grooves that catch or click on
the string. Most players use fingernailsthat extend 1/32 to 1/8 of an inch above the
Seating Position And Basic Movements:
Most classical guitarists sit down and use a footstool under the left leg when performing.
This position is considered to be the most efficient for the arms, hands, and fingers in
executing the movements required in classical guitar playing. Below are some guidelines
which most performers use to establish a comfortable, effective traditional seating
Sit on the corner of an armless chair, and lean slightly forward with your back straight.
Lay the guitar perpendicularly across your left leg, with the tuning pegs to your left.
Contact the guitar at four points: the top of your left leg, the inside of your right leg, your
chest, and the inside of your right forearm (lay your forearm on top of the large curve of
the guitar). You should not have to hold the guitar with your left hand to keep it in place.
See the illustration below:
(PICTURE)With the guitar in this position, slide your left hand up and down the length of the
fretboard. If you need to adjust your shoulder or if you need to move your elbow, then
adjust the distance and angle of the guitar to your body until your hand can reach every
spot on the guitar neck comfortably, without adjusting your position. This is a key
element in efficient left hand technique.
Keep your feet flat on the floor, and avoid any extreme positions which strain a particular
group of muscles or joints. In general, try to keep your joints comfortably alligned, and
keep your muscles within the midrange of their movement. Avoid undo tension, as this
creates fatigue and can distract your concentration from the music. Many players like to
practice in a less rigorous position, with the guitar resting on crossed legs or in some
other comfortable position. This can be effective, especially for beginners who have
enough to concentrate on just finding and playing notes in rhythm. As you become a more
serious player, however, it is helpful to evaluate and eliminate the ways in which your
position restricts movement in your hands and body.
Rest Stroke and Free Stroke:
Classical guitarists distinguish between two different ways of plucking the strings with
the right hand. The "rest stroke" is a movement in which a right hand finger plucks a note
by pressing DOWN INTO the string, and then coming to REST on the adjacent string.
The follow through motion and support of the rest stroke movement allows you play
more loudly than you can with other movements. Rest strokes are used to bring out scalar
passages and single notes that need more "punch". The "free stroke" is the antithesis of a
rest stroke. To perform a free stroke, pluck the string with one of your fingers and PULL
AWAY from the guitar, so that it swings away freely. This type of movement is used for
the majority of situations in classical guitar playing. You should expect to use free strokes
any time two or more strings are played together, and for most spots that don't require
particular emphasis. As with most of the finer elements of classical guitar tradition,
casual performers don't give too much attention to free strokes and rest strokes. As you
become a more proficient performer, however, your ability to use, control, and combine
these two types of movements will bare a great deal on your musically expressive
potential. Experiment with them in the beginning, and you will become comfortable and
more aware of their effect as you progress.
A Brief History of Classical Guitar and Its Music:
The history of the modern classical guitar is brief, with only two great periods of activity
which span less than two hundred years. The repertoire of music played on the classical
guitar, on the other hand, dates back to the middle ages. The majority of the repertoire,
and virtually everything written before the early 19th century, comes from repertoire of
other instruments. The bulk of early classical guitar music consists of transciptions of
lute, violin, and keyboard compositions.
The earliest pieces in the repertoire are "passpieds" and other short anonymous
instrumental dances written for a variety of strummed instruments. All of the music
which came before 1450 A.D. tends to becomparatively simple and relatively
uninteresting to untrained modern ears. This music does not play a large role in the
repertoire of the classical guitar.
The first significant period in the repertoire of the guitar is the Renaissance (c.1450-
1600). The guitar as we know it did not exist then, but its cousin the "lute" did. This pair
shaped instrument had strings which were strummed and plucked in much the same way
as a modern guitar. The common types of compositions for the lute included songs with
lute accompaniment and "dance pieces". The majority of compositions which exist for
this instrument were intended for entertainment and dancing in courts of the aristocracy
of the time. Typical forms and types of pieces each had different intended functions. If
you look through collections of Renaissance music transcribed for guitar, you will find
hundreds of pieces with the same "titles". Each of these titles decribes the type or form of
Pavane - a slow dance in duple time from Spain, typically containing two sections: one
theme and a variation. Pavans are usually paired with and followed by a "Galliard" with
similar themes. From the Spanish word "peacock", the dance was ceremonial and
dignified in nature. Also called
Pavana, Pavin, Paduana, and Pavian.
Galliarde - a moderately quick dance in triple time which typically followed the slower
Pavan. From the French word "merry", the dance was performed with exaggerated leaps
and expressions of courtship.
Allemande - a modererately slow dance in duple time which originated in Germany.
Typically danced with sweeping gestures under a partner's arm. Also Alman, Almain,
Volt - Italian for the word "turn", this type of dance in 6/8 time usually involved a series
of close turns in which the female was swung high in the air. Considered to be indecent at
the time, Volts also may be found under the titles La volta or Volte.
Saltarello - a quick 6/8 dance from Spain. The word means "jump", and the music, as wellas the actual dance typically included some type of jumping effect. Also called an Alta
danse and often paired with a Bassa danse or Passamezzo.
Passamezzo - a moderate Danse in 4/4 time with quick, steady rhythms. From Italy, this
danse typically followed a Saltarello.
Branle - a French dance in either triple or duple time. The French title means to "sway",
and the dance typically involved swaying from one foot to another. Also called Branle
Gai, Branle de Bourgogne, Branle de Champagne, Branle simple, Branle Double.
Spagnoletto - a Spanish dance in which couples danced alternately.
Fantasia - a freely composed piece without any set form. Fantasias often contain several
varied sections, and were typically intended to be performed without dancing. Fantasias
often change tempo and are longer and are more complicated than dance pieces. Written
in contrapuntal and imitative style, sometimes with dancelike sections inserted, a Fantasia
may also be called Fancy, Fantasy, Fantaisie, or Ricercar.
Villanella - A vocal style composition which usually parodied more elevated musical
styles. Also called Villanesca and Villanelle.
Air - A simple melodic instrumental piece written in typical vocal style of the time.
Toy - A short and playful composition often in dance rhythm, also called Toye.
Often, pieces were written for, or dedicated to a member of the royal court, so will find
many titles such as "Queen Elizabeth's Galliard", or "Lady Hammond's Alman", etc.
Renaissance music is often "contrapuntal" in nature. That means that the music is
typically made up of two or more different parts, or melodies, which sound at the same
time. Modern guitar transriptions include some vocal compositions and lute parts
transcribed for a single instrument.
The most important composer of the Renaissance lute was John Dowland (1563-1626).
John Dowland was a royal lutenist and composer for several courts, including Christian
IV of Denmark, as well as James I and Charles I. Many of his compositions form the
foundation of modern classical guitarists' Renaissance repertoire. Other composers
include Louis Milan (c.1500-1561) - his "Six Pavans" are popular in the modern
repertoire. Alonso de Mudarra, Louis de Narvaez, Francis Campion, Francis Cutting,
Cesare Negri, Hans Neusidler, Thomas Robinson, Anthony Holborne, Philip Rosseter,
Francis Pilkington, Robert Johnson, Francesco de Milano, and Jane Pickering are also
significant. The instruments they wrote for included the following:
Lute - the most common plucked instrument of the time. It had a rounded back, a stubby
neck and angled pegbox, and anywhere from six to thirteen sets of strings. The strings
were set up in "courses" or doubled sets, much like a modern twelve string guitar. The
lute had a very tender, quite sound, whether strummed or plucked. More and more
courses of strings were added to the lute, and it eventually became unpopular because it
was so hard to tune.Vihuela - a Spanish instrument that looked very similar to later guitars. It typically had
six courses of strings. Some of the most complicated and significant compositions of the
Renaissance period were written for this instrument.
Four string guitar - an early ancestor of the guitar. The guitar of this period was not so
important as a "serious" instrument. It was often strummed by singers to accompany vocal
The Baroque Period:
The next important time period in the guitar repertoire is the Baroque period (c.1600-
1750). The lute was still used during this period, and several important Baroque lute
works are very popular today. The "theobro" was another plucked instrument of the time
which had a longer neck and many courses of strings. Transcriptions from the violin and
keyboard repertoire of the Baroque period are also commonly played by guitarists. The
most common keyboard instruments of the period were the harpsichord and the "clavier",
an ancestor of the modern piano. The most common types of compositions which have
found their ways into the repertoire of the guitar come from "suites". Suites are sets of
stylized dances, typically following a certain basic order, with individual pieces having
characteristic titles that indicate their structural and formal properties. Most of the pieces
in a suite are artistic, or "stylized", versions of dance pieces. Although they were based on
danse types from various countries, stylized dance pieces were not intended for actual
dancing. Most pieces in a suite are one to three minutes long, are in binary (two part)
form, and remain in the same key, the major differences being rhythm, form, and texture.
The typical pieces in a Baroque suite include, but are not limited to:
Prelude - an informal introductory composition often containing "arpeggios", or broken
chord patterns. The prelude is an optional piece in the Baroque suite, and is intended to
warm up the performer's hands, as well as the listener's ears.
Allemande - a stylized German dance with a 4/4 time signature and a moderately slow
tempo. Its typical characteristics include and a quick upbeat at the beginning of each
section and ornamented style with running sixteenth notes.
Courante - there were two types: the French Courante, and the Italien Corrente. Both
types are typically in lively triple time with an unstable shift in accent between ONE two
THREE four FIVE six and ONE two three FOUR five six. The Italien version was faster,
with continuously running lines, and chordal accompaniment. The French version
involved a shift of movement from bass to treble voices.
Sarabande - a dramatic, yet dignified dance form in triple time which originated in the
East and was made popular in Spain. These pieces are often in minor keys and are
typically played very slowly. They usually stress an accent on the second beat, and lack an
upbeat.Gavotte - a lively dance form from France in 4/4 time, with the unusual characteristic of
having accents on the 3rd, rather than the 1st beats of each measure. An optional piece,
Gavottes often occurred in pairs as Gavotte I, and Gavotte II, with a repeat back to
Bourree - a brisk French dance in 4/4 time, usually with an upbeat at the beginning of
each section. An optional piece in the Baroque suite.
Minuet - a graceful Frech dance in moderate 3/4 time (think about a waltz, and you will
approximate its character). Optional in the Baroque suite.
Passepied - another optional piece, in quick 3/8 or 6/8 time. This dance was gay and
Gique - a fast piece in 6/8 time which is usually placed at the end of the suite. The gigue
is from Ireland (think of the "jig"). Often, the gigue contained a fugal, or imitative
Other types of Baroque instrumental pieces include the fugue, chaconne, are passacaglia.
A fugue is a contrapuntal composition with at least one specific thematic idea (melody),
which is treated to a number of specific, rigorous musical manipulations. They are only a
few Baroque fugues in the repetoire of the guitar, but their complex sound and unique
nature continue to make them popular choices for the modern guitarist. The chaconne and
passacaglia (or "pasacaille") are similar in that they are based on a single chord
progression or bass line which is repeated and texturally varied for the length of the piece.
The most historically important and well known composer of the Baroque period was
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750). Bach did not play the lute, but he did write four
suites for it. Those suites contain some of the best known pieces in the modern guitar
repertoire. There is also a "Prelude, Fugue, and Allegro" set, as well as a seperate
arpeggio prelude which he wrote for lute. In addition, he wrote six suites for violin (three
"sonatas" and three "partitas") and several suites for cello which are all popular as guitar
transciptions. The Chaconne from the second violin partita by J.S. Bach is a landmark
guitar transcription, and one of the most significant compositions in the repertoire.
Several works for clavier, including preludes and fugues from "The Well Tempered
Clavier" are played by the classic guitar population.
Other composers of the Baroque period who wrote important works now played on guitar
include Sylvius Leopold Weiss (pronounced "vise") (1686-1750), Robert De Visee
(c.1650-1725), Francesco Corbetta (1620-1681), Gasper Sanz (1640-1710), Santiago de
Murcia, Lodovico Roncalli (late 1600s), George Frederick Handel (1685-1759), Jean
Philippe Rameau (1683-1764), Francois Couperin (1668-1733), Johann Christian Bach
(1735-1782), Carl Philip Emmanuel Bach (1714-1788), Henry Purcell (c.1658-1695),
Domenico Scarlatti (1685-1757), and George Philippe Telemann (1681-1767).
Weiss was a German lute composer who wrote a number of charming suites that have
gone largely unplayed by modern guitarists. His music is a great source for guitarists who
have grown tired of the overplayed "war pieces" of the classical guitar repertoire. Scarlatti
was a harpsichordist, many pieces by whom have been transcribed for solo and duo guitar.
The Classical Period:
The next historical segment, the "Classical" or "Neoclassical" period (1750-1820)
contained the first "golden age of the guitar", as it is called. This is the first time in which
the guitar became popular as a true concert instrument, as well as a folk instrument of the
people. The instrument of the time was smaller than its modern counterpart, but its
poplarity and influence was great. The guitar was a common popular instrument, played
by the masses, much as the electric guitar is today. Public performances by the great
concert guitarists of the day were common and well attended events. Great advances in
technique were seen during the 19th century, and an enormous amount of music was
added to the repertoire as the public's thirst for guitar performances, as well as pieces to
learn by, grew to a new level. The period from 1775 to 1850 saw acceptance of the first
six single string guitars, as well as the emergance of several great virtuoso
Fernando Sor (1778-1839) - From Spain, this guitarist added volumes of music to the
repertoire. He was a well known virtuoso of the day. His best known compositions are a
number of sonatas, studies, and theme and variation sets including: Variations on a
Theme of Mozart, op. 9; Andante Largo, op. 5; Grand Solo, op. 14; Les Folies d'Espagne,
op. 15a; Grand sonata, op. 22; Rondo in C major, op. 22; Menuet & Rondo, op. 22;
Introduction and Variations on the air "Marlbrough", op. 28.
Mauro Giuliani (1778-1829) - a contemporary of Fernando Sor, was well known in his
home of Italy and abroad. He wrote over three hundred works including several concerti
and numerous chamber works. His best known compositions include: Sonata in C, op. 15;
Sonata Eroica, op. 115; Le Rossiniane, op. 119 and 122; Variations on a Theme by
Handel, op. 107; Rondo in Am, op. 2, #3; Grande Ouverture, op. 61; Concertos op. 30,
36, and 70. His "150 studies for the right hand" are still used by guitar students today.
Matteo Carcassi (1792-1853) - an Italian. His "25 melodious and progressive studies" are
well known by students of classical guitar. Other works include a number of caprices,
variations, sonatinas, and short student pieces. Fernando Carulli (1770-1841) - from Italy.
Wrote over four hundred pieces for guitar, along with a popular and well repected
instruction method. Carulli was a well known performer of the day.
Dionisio Aguado (1784-1849) - from Spain. Aguado was different than other players of
the day in that he used right hand nails to pluck the strings (far ahead of his time). He also
developed an unusual three legged stand for the guitar called a tripodion. His many short
pieces are standard repertoire for beginning guitarists. All of the men above wrote
instructional texts as well as numerous studies which were popular with the public for
their private entertainment and educational value. Many of the studies are learned by
modern students of the classical guitar to improve development in various areas of
technique and musicianship. Longer sonatas, together with complex theme and variation
works were popular forms composed for concert performances by the great virtuosos of
the day. With these pieces, the likes of Fernando Sor and Mauro Giuliani became the first real guitar "heroes" in the history of the instrument. Other guitarists of the same general
period included: Simon Molitor (1766-1848), Anton Diabelli (1781-1858), Luigi
Legnanni (1790-1877), Johann Kaspar Mertz (1806-1856), Giulio Regondi (1822-1874),
Napoleon Coste (1806-1883), Zani de Ferranti (1802-1878), and Julian Arcas (1832-
The Romantic Period:
The "Romantic" period (1820-1920) encompassed the careers of several significant
guitarists, the most important of which was Francesco Tarrega (1852-1909). Tarrega was
the true "father" of the modern guitar. He was one of the first guitarists to take a historical
approach, and transcribe pieces from other instruments to enlarge the repertoire of his
instrument. He also transcibed a number of extremely complex piano works by fellow
Spanish pianists, the likes of which no one had ever previously seen played on guitar.
Tarrega was the first to advocate the use of the large model of guitar created by luthier
Antonio Torres (1817-1892), which became the standard instrument of the modern era.
Tarrega's most famous large concert compositions include "Requerdos de la Alahambra",
"Estudio Brilliante de Alard", "Gran Jota", "Sueno", "Danza Mora", and "Capricho
Arabe". He also wrote a number of small pieces which have become mainstays in the
modern classical guitar repertoire because of their lyrical, guitaristically "Romantic"
quality. Most guitarists learn as students, and continue to play as experienced performers
at least one of the following miniature masterpieces by Tarrega: "Lagrima", "Adelita",
"Maria", "Rosita", "Alborada (the music box)", or one of the many preludes, etudes,
mazurkas, and other short pieces.
Tarrega was not a "star", like the famous guitarist/performers of the 19th century. He
preferred to play for small gatherings of friends and admirers. Romantic contemporaries
of Tarrega included Miguel Llobet (1878-1938), Augustin Barrios Mangore (1885-1944),
and Emilio Pujol (1886-1980). These performers also produced transcriptions and new
compositions for the guitar.
Francesco Tarrega left a legacy to the guitar world not only in his technical and musical
contributions, but also by the fact that he introduced to the guitar the greatest historical
figure in the development of the instrument. That great modern figure was Andres
Andres Segovia and the Modern Classical Guitar:
Andres Segovia established the guitar as the concert instrument that it is today, and
brought about the second "golden age" of the guitar virtually single handedly. He
transcribed an enormous number of compositions by J.S. Bach and other composers,
which musicians in the world of "serious music" thought could not or should not be
played on the guitar. He also commissioned large numbers of solo pieces and concerti
which most professional guitarists now play at some point in their careers. The famous
modern composers who have written for him include: Frederic Morreno-Torroba (b.
1891), Joaquin Turina (1882-1949), Joquin Rodrigo (b. 1902), Heitor Villa Lobos, (1887-1954), Manuel De Falla (1876-1945), Manuel Ponce (1886-1948), Mario Castelnuevo-
Tedesco (1845-1968), Alexander Tansman (1897), and many others. The pieces which
Segovia transcribed, commissioned, or brought into public view through recordings and
performances form the foundation of the modern guitar repertoire. Below are some of the
Isaac Albeniz: Torre Bermeja, Granada, Cordoba, Asturias (Leyenda), Sevilla, Rumores
De La Caleta, Cadiz, Tango (Albeniz originally wrote these for piano, but they have
become more popular as guitar transcriptions).
Turina: Garrotn y Soleares, Homenaje a Tarrega, Fandanguillo, Sevillana, Rafaga
Torroba: Sonatina in A, Madronos, Suite Castellana, Romance de los Pinos
Villa-Lobos: Twelve etudes, Five preludes, Suite Populaire Bresilienne, Choros #1,
Concerto for guitar and small orchestra
Falla: The Miller's Dance (from The Three Cornered Hat), Homenaje pour le Tombeau de
Claude Debussy, Spanish Dance #1 (from La Vida Breve)
Rodrigo: Concierto de Aranjuez, Fantasia Para Un Gentilhombre, En los Trigales
Granados: Spanish Dances 2, 5, 10, La Maja de Goya (Tonadilla), Villanesca
Ponce: Twevle Preludes, Valse, Canciones Populares Mexicanas, Twenty Variations and
Fugue on Folias de Espana, Theme Variations and Fughetta on a theme by Antonio de
Cabezon, Concerto del Sur, Sonata Clasica, Sonata Romantica, Sonata Mexicana,
Castelnuovo-Tedesco: Concerto #1 in D, Homage to Paganini, Sonata (Ommagio a
Boccherini), Tarantella, Variazioni, Quintet op. 143, incidental music for "Platero y Yo",
Benjamin Britten: Nocturnal
Leo Brouwer: La Espiral Eterna, Elogio De La Danza, Etudes Simples, Piece sans titre
Antonio Lauro: Danza Venezolana, Valse criollo
Tansman: Barcarolle, Dansa Pomposa, Scherzino (from Cavatina), Suite in Modo
Duarte: Variations on a Catalan Folk Song
Eric Satie: Gymnopedies 1-3
Debussy: The Girl with the Flaxen Hair
Ravel: Pavane pour une infante defunte, Empress of the PagodasRuiz Pipo: Cancion Y Danza
Barrios: Un Sueno en la Floresta, Choro da Saudade, Aire de Zamba, La Catedral
J.S. Bach: Most of the lute, violin, and cello suites and solo compositions
Vivaldi: Concerto in D major
Gasper Sanz: Suite Espanola
Couperin: Les Barricades Mysterieuses
Narvaez: Variations on Guardame Las Vacas
Anonymous: Romanza, El Noy De La Mare
Segovia performed tirelessly for most of his adult life (into his nineties), inspiring many
young musicians to pick up the instrument and continue the tradition he had begun. His
legacy includes hundreds of recorded tracks that chronicle his extraodinary musical
Although Segovia's techinical ability, and even the scope of his work, has been surpassed
by that of later generations, most of what exists in the modern arena of classical guitar
can be traced to origins of his doing.
Today, the classical guitar is enjoying a level of popularity never seen before. The
repertoire continues to grow, and performances and recordings of classical guitar can be
found in any area the country. Guitar programs abound at universities and schools all
around the country, and standands of performance improve as more and more great
performers are drawn to the beauty of the instrument.
If you would like to learn more about the repertoire of the classical guitar you can listen
to recordings and performances by these modern players, as well as others in your area:
John Williams, Julian Bream, Christopher Parkening, Elliot Fisk, Enesto Bitetti, Kazuhito
Yamashita, Sharron Isben, Ben Verdery, Manuel Barrueco, Carlos Barbosa-Lima, Pepe
Romero, Angel Romero, Goran Sollscher, David Starobin, David Leisner, Narciso Yepes,
Carlos Bonell, Alirio Diaz, Michael Newman, Jorge Morel, Konrad Ragossnig, David
Russel, Liona Boyd, Leo Brouwer, Micheal Lorimer, Eduardo Fernandez, Vladamir
Mikulka, Oscar Ghiglia, Milan Zelenka, Sergio Abreu, Abel Carlevaro, Siegfried
Behrend, Rey de la Torre, John Duarte, John Mills, David Tanenbaum.
Copyright © 2004-2013 Nick Antonaccio, all rights reserved.